Summary Increasing levels of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere and possible severe climate changes are the ultimate challenge of our time. Renewable energy is an obvious alternative to fossil fuels, but the fluctuating energy output is difficult to adapt to our varying energy consumption. Rechargeable batteries for energy storage has become an indispensable and integrated part of our daily life. Unfortunately, the current lithium battery research is characterized by incremental improvements of known materials, and that the energy storage densities remain ~100 times less than that of gasoline. Therefore, completely new types of batteries made from abundant elements and with much better performance are needed. This is the focus of the present instrument investment.