What Sand is the most mined material in the world and a key ingredient in modern life. Aggregates - sand and gravel - are being extracted faster than they can be replaced, yet the critical value of these natural resources have received distressingly little attention. This project aims to understand the implications sand mining has on ecosystems, human health and societies while also acknowledging the value of this critical commodity for economies and communities around the world. In particular, the project will assess the conflicts and synergies that arise from sand mining in Africa with the United Nation's 17 Sustainable Development Goals. Why The global population is roughly 8 billion and the African continent is expected to increase its population from 1 billion to 2.4 billion by 2050. A key ingredient in our modern world is sand, which constitutes the foundation for modern civilization. However, various complications arise from the lack of understanding of sand's importance. We currently have little knowledge of the links between sand mining and disease prevention, nor do we have sufficient insight into the relationship between mining activities and urbanization, population growth and bio-sensitive areas. This project will gain new insights into these complex relationships that exist to sustainably manage and govern this essential natural resource while sustainably develop and improve the livelihood for people in Africa. How The project analyzes where the resources are exploited in Africa and project the spatial demand for sand on the increasingly populated continent. Using a machine learning approach, I will produce a map showing sand mining activities in Africa. Hereafter, I will assess the spatial overlap of housing improvement in Africa over the past decade and compare with sand mining "hot spots" identified in the map. Lastly, I will assess complex conflicts and synergies of sand mining with the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. Ultimately, gaining a better understanding will help guide further efforts to minimize the negative effects on the environment and set the way towards creating a comprehensive assessment of the relationships between sand mining, poverty reduction and livelihood improvement. SSR While the project is founded on basic research on landscape changes, it has high societal relevance as it shines light on the overlooked global challenge of natural resource scarcity. It focuses on the extensive usage and dependency of the world's most mined mineral as well as the complexity in managing the resource in an increasingly populated world. The goal of the project is to draw international attention to the natural resource challenge and to document the complexity in achieving a sustainable usage of this natural resource while sustainably improving conditions for the world's poorest and most marginalized regions. The project aims to be the transformational step needed to boost and initiate collaborations between research, industry, local communities and policy-makers.