Summary Language is probably the only feature that fundamentally (and not only gradually) distinguishes us humans from all the other primates, the many different languages constituting a fantastic cultural, social and cognitive treasure. Linguistics without using the name of our object, i.e. language, in the plural form, thus languageS, does not make much sense. At this conference, we will examine, often by comparing languages, different aspects of different languages, be they historical or present, individual or group-related. The outcome will be, facilitated by skilled discussions, a better understanding of some of the aspects from the huge bunch of questions. A selection of the most convincing papers will be published to share the findings with the scientific community.