What The monograph will document the central role of radical Pietism in the northern parts of the Holy Roman Empire, in Denmark and Norway from the 1690s when religious fervor soared, to the 1750s when it calmed down. It testifies that radical Pietist women and men expressed profound critique of traditional patriarchal Christianity and demonstrates how this critique converged with other forms of social criticism, especially of political and clerical power holders and of inherited social status. Why The monograph offers a new understanding of how ideas of meritocracy and equality developed in the Age of Enlightenment. It will demonstrate how a broader social scale of women and men became key actors in this period. How The monograph is based on handwritten sources, collected in Germany, Denmark and Norway SSR This monograph will demonstrate the interconnectedness of German and Scandinavian history and deepen our understanding of religious radicalization. It will bring out new knowledge of how women achieved a very active role in the radical religious Enlightenment, and how both men and women challenged traditional gender boundaries and social hierarchies. An important result is to illuminate how women proactively pursued subversive ideas through other channels than those, which researchers have usually examined.