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The structure and development of 21st century science

Carlsberg Foundation Monograph Fellowships

What

"The Structure and Development of 21st Century Science" will describe the overarching systemic forces that drive scientific progress today, how they compare to epistemic goals and values of the past, and how they can have flipsides that promote questionable practices. The monograph will present a reorientation of how the epistemic and social processes of transformative research are to be understood. In describing the overarching systemic forces that drive or halt the progress of contemporary science, the monograph will provide new perspectives on classical issues such as creativity and academic freedom, and it will give important guidance for ongoing debates in science policy on research organization, research funding, and strategic research planning.

Why

Much of our current understanding of the way science develops has been inspired by the ideas about paradigms and revolutions that were developed by the philosopher Thomas Kuhn in the mid-20th century. Since then, science has developed dramatically. Science has become more and more interdisciplinary and collaborative, increased substantially in volume, and become increasingly driven by political and institutional strategies and by the availability of funding. Hence, a new account of the structure and development of science is needed that reflects all of these changes. Presenting a new, integral understanding of how scientific knowledge is produced today, the monograph will provide important guidance for science policy, science education and academic management.

How

A new movement for philosophy of science in practice has rejuvenated naturalized philosophy of science by moving beyond historical studies of the past and focusing philosophical scholarship on detailed studies of how science is practiced today. This has redirected philosophical attention towards a much broader set of issues in understanding how scientific knowledge is created and applied. This monograph will synthesize results from this literature in providing a new account of contemporary science that includes the many institutional and social aspects that influence how scientific knowledge is created and used.

SSR

Scientific knowledge has become a central element in education, policymaking, and value orientation of societies around the globe. This calls for a solid understanding of the forces that drive or halt the progress of contemporary science. The monograph will present a novel account of the structure and development of 21st century science that can provide important guidance for science policy, science education and science management and give new perspectives on ongoing debates within the scientific community about freedom and responsibilities in academia.