What Mindfulness meditation trains adaptive attention regulation, present moment embodied awareness, and perspective taking. Mindfulness training may be particularly useful for those prone to rumination i.e. maladaptive preoccupation and repetitive thinking about the possible causes and consequences of negative feelings and problems. Those prone to ruminate are more likely to experience chronic stress and burnout, and impaired regulation of attention, emotions and behavior, and may develop mental health problems. Hence, my research project specifically investigates how mindfulness training may impact and alter brain dynamics in those prone to ruminate. Why The interplay of psychological and biological processes holds great potential to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of change, yet there is a paucity of studies looking at neurocognitive mechanisms of mindfulness interventions amongst those with high propensity to ruminate. We will use novel methodologies we seek to elucidate the flexibility or rigidity of specific neural connectivity patterns. Such dynamic connectivity methods may yield valuable insight into the differences between states of mindfulness practice and rumination, and how neural dynamics during a ruminative state may change after mindfulness training in a way that can not be captured by traditional static neural connectivity measures. How In a population of individuals who are high in ruminative traits, I plan to investigate the neurocognitive mechanism of mindfulness training by applying novel state-of-the-art methods to examine brain dynamics during states of rest, mindfulness practice and rumination before and after mindfulness training. This work will be conducted together with leading researchers in the field of mindfulness and cognitive neuroscience at the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour in The Netherlands and at University of Oxford in United Kingdom, where the research environment is world-renowned and groundbreaking within psychology and cognitive neuroscience. SSR Mindfulness interventions may contribute to moving society at large towards greater mental health and flourishing. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is important to ensure optimal application in society at large. The proposed research project may provide insight into the dynamics of well-being and stress-resilience offered by mindfulness training, which may inform both theory building and societal initiatives for well-being and stress-resilience implementation.